Three-wheelers play an important role many Asian cities. They do not only serve as a feeder or main mode of commute but also serve as a main mode for urban freight distribution linking markets with homes and neighbourhood shops. However, the popularity of such modes comes at a cost - air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, accidents, and other social impacts, to name a few.
Many Asian cities still have significant 2-stroke tricycles and while these engines provide high power to weight ratio, low-cost, high maneuverability and simple construction, they allow inefficient burning of about 15-40% of the fuel charge, making it a major environmental concern. Many Asian cities are taking technology improvement and investment decisions without adequate information, the issue of different types of technology solutions to replace inefficient 2-stroke tricycles such as total replacement with either four-strokes, electric tricycles, LPG tricycles or by retrofitting with direct-injection using the same 2-stroke engine, direct-injection 2-stroke using LPG, 4-stroke engine re-powering, and 4-Stroke LPG engine re-powering technologies.
"Asian cities are looking for solutions to reduce pollution from motorized three wheelers. There is a plethora of technologies being offered to them which can be overwhelming. This publication offers an objective and scientific review of these technologies and the trade-offs that come with each," Glynda Bathan-Baterina, Policy and Partnerships Manager of CAI-Asia said. This study focuses on the environmental, financial and social cost benefit aspects of the technologies concerned and the various phase-out options particular to the Philippine case. It also includes an overview of an on-going initiative to replace 2-stroke tricycles in Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila.
Some of the main recommendations of the study are:
Read the report here.
For more information on CAI-Asia and Partnership for Clean Air (PCA)'s activities on tricycle management in Philippines, click here.
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