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Unmaintained two and three-wheelers cause substantial pollution in Philippine cities. Motorcycles emit substantial quantities of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. These pollutants have significant health impacts to the urban population depending on the length and levels of exposure.
The Philippines have completely banned the importation of two-stroke motorcycles. However, because two-stroke engines are durable and easy to fix, Philippines continue to have a substantial number of two-stroke three-wheelers. Due to its inherent design, two-stroke engines do not combust fuel efficiently and cause higher emissions of particulate matter and hydrocarbons. Lubricating oil for two-stroke engines contribute 95% of particulate matter emissions.
CAI-Asia prepared and released the following studies on tricycles:
- Cost Benefit Analysis of Technology and Replacement Options for 2-Stroke Three-Wheelers in the Philippines. Read the full report here.
- Managing 2 and 3-wheelers in Asia. Read the full report here.
Likewise, a number of tricycle management strategies have been implemented by the Partneship for Clean Air in the Philippines as follows:
- San Fernando City, La Union. Reduced the share of 2-stroke tricycles from 71% to 6% in the city between 2001 to 2007 with the provision of soft loans combined with effective information campaign
- Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila. CAI-Asia and PCA worked with partners to trial a replacement and scrappage scheme for two-stroke tricycles that started in 2009. Twenty operators each received an interest free loan of about US$1,700 from a revolving scheme to purchase a four-stroke tricycle and handed in their old tricycle for scrappage. Drivers pay back the load from fuel savings realized through the use of the more efficient four-stroke tricycles.
- Quezon City, Metro Manila. As part of the city's 12-Point Agenda to strengthen the air quality management, an Eco-Driving Training was organized for members of Quezon City Tricycle Operators and Drivers Associations last January 2012.