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S.W. Nashreen, A.K. Azad and J. Sultana; p. 105-117, Bangladesh Environment, vol. I, 2002; A compilation of technical papers of the 2nd International Conference on Bangladesh Environment (ICBEN-2002), BAPA.
Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is one of the most important gases in atmosphere, which is necessary for sustaining life cycle in earth. It is also considered as the major green house gas contributing to global warming and climate change. In this study, the energy consumption structure in Bangladesh has been analyzed and CO2 emission from fossil fuel (coal, gas, petroleum products) combustion has been estimated from 1977 to 1995. The IPCC (International Panel for Climate Change) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories were followed in CO2 emission estimation. First, annual energy consumption is multiplied by net carbon emission factor for each fuel type to obtain net carbon emission. Then actual carbon emission is estimated from net carbon emission and it is converted into CO2 emission.
The estimated total CO2 release from all primary fossil fuels use in Bangladesh amounted to 5,072 Gg in 1977, which increased to 14,423 Gg in 1995. Total amount of CO2 release from petroleum products, natural gas and coal in the period 1977 to 1995 were 83,026 Gg (50%), 72,541 Gg (44%) and 9,545 Gg (6%), respectively. An emission trend of CO2 with projection up to year 2070 is generated. In 2070 total estimated CO2 emission would be 2,93,260 Gg at the current growth rate of 6.34% per year. It is observed from the estimated results that CO2 emission from fossil fuels shows an increasing trend. Petroleum products contribute most in CO2 emission load. Though the use of Natural gas is increasing at a rapid rate, its contribution to CO2 emission is less than the petroleum products. The use of coal as well as the emission from it decreases gradually. This study will give useful information on Bangladesh's contribution to global level greenhouse gas emission as well as planning and decision taking processes regarding global warming, climate change and sea level rise.